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Social engineering tricks open the door to macro-malware attacks – how can we close it?

April 28th, 2015 No comments

The macro malware-laden documents that target email users through email spam are intentionally crafted to pique any person's curiosity.  With subjects that include sales invoices, federal tax payments, courier notifications, resumes, and donation confirmations, users can be easily tricked to read the email and open the attachment without thinking twice.

The user opens the document, enables the macro, thinking that the document needs it to function properly – unknowingly enabling the macro malware to run.

Just when you think macro malware is a thing of the past, over the past few months, we have seen an increasing macro downloader trend that affects nearly 501,240 unique machines worldwide.

Increasing trend of macro downloaders from April 2014 to 2015

 Figure 1: Increasing trend of macro downloaders from April 2014 to 2015

We have seen majority of the macro-malware attacks in the United States and United Kingdom.

Macro downloaders’ prevalence in affected countries

Figure 2: Macro downloaders’ prevalence in affected countries

 

Macro malware distribution heat map

Figure 3: Macro malware distribution heat map

Macro malware infection chain

As stated in the previous macro blog, macro downloaders serve as the gateway for other nasty malware to get in. The following diagram shows how a typical macro downloader gets into the system and deliver its payload.

Macro downloader infection chain

Figure 4: Macro downloader infection chain

The macro malware gets into your PC as a spam email attachment. The spam email recipient then falls for a social engineering technique, opens the attachment, thereby enabling the macro inside the document.

We have identified some of these macro downloader threats, but not limited to:

When a malicious macro code runs, it either downloads its final payload, or it downloads another payload courier in the form of a binary downloader.

We have observed the following final payload, but is not limited to:

We have also observed the following binary downloaders to be related to these macros, but not limited to:

After the macro malware is downloaded, the job is pretty much done. The torch is passed to either the final payload or the binary downloader.

We have observed the following threats being downloaded by the binary downloaders, but not limited to:

 

Prevention: How do you close that door?

If you know that social engineering tricks through spam emails open the door to macro malware attacks, what can you do to help protect your enterprise software security infrastructure in closing that door?

Be careful on enabling macros

Macro threats, as payload couriers, seem to gain popularity as an effective infection vector. But unlike exploit kits, these macro threats require user consent to run. To avoid running into trouble because of these macro threats, see Before you enable those macros, for details on prevention.

You can also read more about the macro configuration options to understand the scenarios when you can enable or disable them. See Microsoft Project – how to control Macro Settings using registry keys for details.

Aside from that, be aware of the dangers in opening suspicious emails. That includes not opening email attachments or links from untrusted sources.

If you are an enterprise software security administrator, what can you do?

Most, if not all of the macro malware received are in .doc file format (D0 CF) which are seen in Microsoft Office 2007 and older versions.

If you are in charge of looking after your enterprise software security infrastructure, you can:

  • Update your Microsoft security software. Microsoft detects this threat and encourages everyone to always run on the latest software version for protection.
  • Ensure that your Trust Center settings are configured not to load older Office versions:
    1. Go to Word Options, and select Trust Center. Click Trust Center Settings.

      Trust Center settings

                                                                  

    2. In the Trust Center dialog box, select File Block Settings. Then, select the Word versions that you need to block. 

Trust Center file block settings

Doing so blocks older Office versions from opening.

You can check if MAPS feature is enabled in your Microsoft security product by selecting the Settings tab and then MAPS.

System Center Endpoint Protection MAPS settings

MMPC

Social engineering tricks open the door to macro-malware attacks – how can we close it?

April 28th, 2015 No comments

The macro malware-laden documents that target email users through email spam are intentionally crafted to pique any person's curiosity.  With subjects that include sales invoices, federal tax payments, courier notifications, resumes, and donation confirmations, users can be easily tricked to read the email and open the attachment without thinking twice.

The user opens the document, enables the macro, thinking that the document needs it to function properly – unknowingly enabling the macro malware to run.

Just when you think macro malware is a thing of the past, over the past few months, we have seen an increasing macro downloader trend that affects nearly 501,240 unique machines worldwide.

Increasing trend of macro downloaders from April 2014 to 2015

 Figure 1: Increasing trend of macro downloaders from April 2014 to 2015

We have seen majority of the macro-malware attacks in the United States and United Kingdom.

Macro downloaders’ prevalence in affected countries

Figure 2: Macro downloaders’ prevalence in affected countries

 

Macro malware distribution heat map

Figure 3: Macro malware distribution heat map

Macro malware infection chain

As stated in the previous macro blog, macro downloaders serve as the gateway for other nasty malware to get in. The following diagram shows how a typical macro downloader gets into the system and deliver its payload.

Macro downloader infection chain

Figure 4: Macro downloader infection chain

The macro malware gets into your PC as a spam email attachment. The spam email recipient then falls for a social engineering technique, opens the attachment, thereby enabling the macro inside the document.

We have identified some of these macro downloader threats, but not limited to:

When a malicious macro code runs, it either downloads its final payload, or it downloads another payload courier in the form of a binary downloader.

We have observed the following final payload, but is not limited to:

We have also observed the following binary downloaders to be related to these macros, but not limited to:

After the macro malware is downloaded, the job is pretty much done. The torch is passed to either the final payload or the binary downloader.

We have observed the following threats being downloaded by the binary downloaders, but not limited to:

 

Prevention: How do you close that door?

If you know that social engineering tricks through spam emails open the door to macro malware attacks, what can you do to help protect your enterprise software security infrastructure in closing that door?

Be careful on enabling macros

Macro threats, as payload couriers, seem to gain popularity as an effective infection vector. But unlike exploit kits, these macro threats require user consent to run. To avoid running into trouble because of these macro threats, see Before you enable those macros, for details on prevention.

You can also read more about the macro configuration options to understand the scenarios when you can enable or disable them. See Microsoft Project – how to control Macro Settings using registry keys for details.

Aside from that, be aware of the dangers in opening suspicious emails. That includes not opening email attachments or links from untrusted sources.

If you are an enterprise software security administrator, what can you do?

Most, if not all of the macro malware received are in .doc file format (D0 CF) which are seen in Microsoft Office 2007 and older versions.

If you are in charge of looking after your enterprise software security infrastructure, you can:

  • Update your Microsoft security software. Microsoft detects this threat and encourages everyone to always run on the latest software version for protection.
  • Ensure that your Trust Center settings are configured not to load older Office versions:
    1. Go to Word Options, and select Trust Center. Click Trust Center Settings.

      Trust Center settings

                                                                  

    2. In the Trust Center dialog box, select File Block Settings. Then, select the Word versions that you need to block. 

Trust Center file block settings

Doing so blocks older Office versions from opening.

You can check if MAPS feature is enabled in your Microsoft security product by selecting the Settings tab and then MAPS.

System Center Endpoint Protection MAPS settings

MMPC

MAPS in the cloud: How can it help your enterprise?

January 21st, 2015 No comments

Malware can easily send a huge enterprise infrastructure into a tailspin. However, you can get greater protection from malware by using services in the cloud.  

Yes, there’s an opportunity to get real-time results from suspicious malware triggers where your system can:

  1. Consult the cloud upon detecting suspicious malware behaviors.
  2. Respond by blocking malware based on derived logic from the account ecosystem data, and local signals from the client.

How? Through the Microsoft Active Protection Service (MAPS). 

What is MAPS?

The Microsoft Active Protection Service is the cloud service that enables:

  • Clients to report key telemetry events and suspicious malware queries to the cloud
  • Cloud to provide real-time blocking responses back to the client

The MAPS service is available for all Microsoft's antivirus products and services, including:

  • Microsoft Forefront Endpoint Protection
  • Microsoft Security Essentials
  • System Center Endpoint Protection
  • Windows Defender on Windows 8 and later versions

What can MAPS do for your enterprise software security?

Enabling MAPS in your system gives you:

  • Greater malware protection through cloud-delivered malware-blocking decisions

Enable MAPS to trigger cloud calls for suspicious events. Doing so helps ensure that the machine uses the latest malware information available from the Microsoft Malware Protection Center (MMPC) research team, back-end big data, and machine learning logic.

  • Aggregated protection telemetry

    Leverage the latest ecosystem-wide detection techniques offered through the cloud. Microsoft aggregates protection telemetry from over one billion clients, and cross-references them with numerous signals.

MMPC threat intelligence leverages algorithms to construct and manage a view of threats in the ecosystem. When the endpoint product encounters suspicious activities, it can consult the cloud for real-time analysis before acting on it.

The vast data and computing resources available in the cloud allows the fast detection of polymorphic and emerging threats and the application of advanced protection techniques.

At a high level, here's what the MAPS protection looks like:

How the MAPS cloud protection and telemetry works from the endpoint and back

Figure 1: How the cloud protection and telemetry works from the endpoint and back.

Client machines selectively send telemetry in real-time (for detection), or periodically (for health checks) to the Microsoft Malware Protection Center’s (MMPC) cloud service which includes:

  • Threat telemetry –  to identify the threats, threat-related resources, and remediation results
  • Suspicious behavior – to collect samples, determine what to monitor and remediate
  • Heartbeat – to check the system's pulse to know if the antivirus application is still running, and if it has the updated version

The MMPC cloud service responds to client telemetry with: 

  • Cloud actions – which include context and a set of instructions from the cloud on how to handle a potential threat (for example, block it).
  • Cloud false positive mitigation response – to suppress false positive malware detections

The data gathered is treated with confidentiality. See the Microsoft System Center 2012 Endpoint Protection Privacy Statement for details. To help protect your privacy, reports are sent to Microsoft over an encrypted connection. Relevant data is analyzed

 

What the data shows

Figure 2: Percentage of protection MAPS can contribute over a six-month period

Figure 2: Percentage of protection MAPS can contribute over a six-month period

If we take the System Center Endpoint Protection data as an example, you'll see how MAPS is contributing 10% of protection to enterprise users on SCEP systems.

Imagine living without it – there'll be 10% more machines infected, and 10% more chance of intruders.

 

Prerequisites 
Both Basic membership and Advanced membership enable cloud protection. See the Microsoft Active Protection Service (MAPS) section of the Microsoft System Center 2012 Endpoint Protection Privacy Statement for details.

By default, MAPS Basic is enabled in all of Microsoft’s new antimalware products. For enterprise customers, you have to enable it to get cloud protection from new threats that are coming in.

With the Advanced membership, you can get more information about the malware and/or suspicious behaviour. Such information can give your enterprise infrastructure better protection.

To get your system ready for MAPS, see the Introduction to Endpoint Protection in Configuration Manager.   

 

So, what can you do to protect your enterprise? 

Keep MAPS enabled on your system.  

Join the Microsoft Active Protection Service Community.

To check if MAPS is enabled in your Microsoft security product, select Settings and then select MAPS:

With the MAPS option enabled, Microsoft anti-malware security product can take full advantage of Microsoft's cloud protection service

Figure 3: With the MAPS option enabled, Microsoft anti-malware security product can take full advantage of Microsoft's cloud protection service

 

MMPC

MAPS in the cloud: How can it help your enterprise?

January 21st, 2015 No comments

Malware can easily send a huge enterprise infrastructure into a tailspin. However, you can get greater protection from malware by using services in the cloud.  

Yes, there’s an opportunity to get real-time results from suspicious malware triggers where your system can:

  1. Consult the cloud upon detecting suspicious malware behaviors.
  2. Respond by blocking malware based on derived logic from the account ecosystem data, and local signals from the client.

How? Through the Microsoft Active Protection Service (MAPS). 

What is MAPS?

The Microsoft Active Protection Service is the cloud service that enables:

  • Clients to report key telemetry events and suspicious malware queries to the cloud
  • Cloud to provide real-time blocking responses back to the client

The MAPS service is available for all Microsoft's antivirus products and services, including:

  • Microsoft Forefront Endpoint Protection
  • Microsoft Security Essentials
  • System Center Endpoint Protection
  • Windows Defender on Windows 8 and later versions

What can MAPS do for your enterprise software security?

Enabling MAPS in your system gives you:

  • Greater malware protection through cloud-delivered malware-blocking decisions

Enable MAPS to trigger cloud calls for suspicious events. Doing so helps ensure that the machine uses the latest malware information available from the Microsoft Malware Protection Center (MMPC) research team, back-end big data, and machine learning logic.

  • Aggregated protection telemetry

    Leverage the latest ecosystem-wide detection techniques offered through the cloud. Microsoft aggregates protection telemetry from over one billion clients, and cross-references them with numerous signals.

MMPC threat intelligence leverages algorithms to construct and manage a view of threats in the ecosystem. When the endpoint product encounters suspicious activities, it can consult the cloud for real-time analysis before acting on it.

The vast data and computing resources available in the cloud allows the fast detection of polymorphic and emerging threats and the application of advanced protection techniques.

At a high level, here's what the MAPS protection looks like:

How the MAPS cloud protection and telemetry works from the endpoint and back

Figure 1: How the cloud protection and telemetry works from the endpoint and back.

Client machines selectively send telemetry in real-time (for detection), or periodically (for health checks) to the Microsoft Malware Protection Center’s (MMPC) cloud service which includes:

  • Threat telemetry –  to identify the threats, threat-related resources, and remediation results
  • Suspicious behavior – to collect samples, determine what to monitor and remediate
  • Heartbeat – to check the system's pulse to know if the antivirus application is still running, and if it has the updated version

The MMPC cloud service responds to client telemetry with: 

  • Cloud actions – which include context and a set of instructions from the cloud on how to handle a potential threat (for example, block it).
  • Cloud false positive mitigation response – to suppress false positive malware detections

The data gathered is treated with confidentiality. See the Microsoft System Center 2012 Endpoint Protection Privacy Statement for details. To help protect your privacy, reports are sent to Microsoft over an encrypted connection. Relevant data is analyzed

 

What the data shows

Figure 2: Percentage of protection MAPS can contribute over a six-month period

Figure 2: Percentage of protection MAPS can contribute over a six-month period

If we take the System Center Endpoint Protection data as an example, you'll see how MAPS is contributing 10% of protection to enterprise users on SCEP systems.

Imagine living without it – there'll be 10% more machines infected, and 10% more chance of intruders.

 

Prerequisites 
Both Basic membership and Advanced membership enable cloud protection. See the Microsoft Active Protection Service (MAPS) section of the Microsoft System Center 2012 Endpoint Protection Privacy Statement for details.

By default, MAPS Basic is enabled in all of Microsoft’s new antimalware products. For enterprise customers, you have to enable it to get cloud protection from new threats that are coming in.

With the Advanced membership, you can get more information about the malware and/or suspicious behaviour. Such information can give your enterprise infrastructure better protection.

To get your system ready for MAPS, see the Introduction to Endpoint Protection in Configuration Manager.   

 

So, what can you do to protect your enterprise? 

Keep MAPS enabled on your system.  

Join the Microsoft Active Protection Service Community.

To check if MAPS is enabled in your Microsoft security product, select Settings and then select MAPS:

With the MAPS option enabled, Microsoft anti-malware security product can take full advantage of Microsoft's cloud protection service

Figure 3: With the MAPS option enabled, Microsoft anti-malware security product can take full advantage of Microsoft's cloud protection service

 

MMPC